Language processing in mind | Proses dalam Pikiran Bahasa

Language processing in mind

I.  the scope of psycholinguistics

--two core questions:
 what knowledge of language is needed for us to use language?
 What cognitive processes (perception, memory and thinking) are involved in the use of language?

II.                Psychological Mechanisms

2.1 information processing system

2.1.1        sensory stores
--incoming information first enters sm, which retain them , for a brief time, in raw unanalyzed form.
2.1.2        working memory
--limited in size; it can hold approximately 7 plus or minus 2 whatever units of information, average 5
2.1.3        permanent memory
--acts as a permanent storehouse for meaningful information
--have a limitless storage capacity
--information is stored on the base of meaning and importance , not sound.
--when new information enters wm, some old information will be retrieved from pm to the working memory so that this new information can be coded as meaningful or not by relating it to the old information.

2.1.4        summary
--the information processing mechanism consist of sensory stores, working memory, permanent memory and a set of control processes.

2.2 central issues in language processing
2.2.1        serial processing vs. parallel processing
Serial processing
--Based on the electronic computer, which tend to executive processes rapidly in a serial manner.
--If a group of processes takes place one at a time, with none overlapping, it is called serial processing.
2.2.2        modularity
--modularity has 2 meanings.
1)   independence of the lang processing system from the general cognitive system. --Eg. Chomsky
--the speech perception is a special lg module . the properties belong to the perception of speech but not to the perception of say, music.
2)   the ling subsystems, such as semantics, syntax, operate independently rather than interactively.
--eg. in comprehending a sentence, we apply syntactic principles first, than semantic knowledge. (the interactive view is that we use the knowledge in syntactic and semantic simultaneously.)

III.            Word perception

3.1 dimension of word knowledge
3.2 organization of the internal lexicon—spreading activation models
3.2.1        the concept of a semantic network
--Biologically, the brain is composed of neurons that are connected to other neurons and that these connections can be either facilitative or inhibitory.
3.2.2        spreading activation models
--Collins and Loftus (1975)
--the organization of the internal lexicon
--such relations are not equal; some nodes are more accessible than other and the degree of accessibility is related to factor such as frequency and typicality.
--by Bock and Levelt (1994)
1)  our knowledge of words exists at three levels.
2)  The conceptual level: similar to the Collins and Loftus model. Consisting of nodes that represent concept; nodes are connected to other nodes by various relations.
3)  Lemma level
--a lemma refers to syntactic aspects of word knowledge (such as part of speech, gender, and subject requirement such an animate subject?)
4)  lexeme level: phonological properties of a word (phonemes and pronunciation) 
3.3 lexical access
3.3.1        cohort model
--by Marslen-Wilson (1987, 1990)
1)    --designed specifically to account for auditory word recognition.
2)    finally the recognized word is fit into the connected discourse.
3.3.2        variables that influence lexical access
1)  word frequency
Low frequency words take longer time to be retrieved.
2)  morphological complexity
Response time (in experiments such as eye-fixation, retrieving affixes to change word part of speech) was longer for affixed words than words without affixes.
  E.g. in retrieving ‘decision’, we retrieve ‘decide’ and ‘–sion’ and then combine them.

3)  semantic priming (semantic association)
--Semantic priming: ~ occurs when a word presented earlier activates another, semantically related word.

4)  lexical ambiguity
Lexical Ambiguity has generated a substantial amount of research because it raises a number of intriguing Questions.
Summary (Lexical Access)
1.            Lexical access influenced by factors including frequency, phonological structural, syntactic categories, morphological structural, the presence of semantically related words and the existence of alternative meanings of the words.
2.            Common words and meaning appear to be in a state of greater readiness then less frequency word and meaning.
3.            ambiguous word: we briefly consider all meanings of an ambiguous word. However, when a preceding context primes the most dominant meaning of ambiguous word, lexical access may be selective.

IV.             Sentence Comprehension and Memory

Most, you barely notice their structure.
Some, the wording is so cumbersome that you’ll struggle to unravel what’s been said.
We often forget the exact words used to convey a message.
Some sentences linger in our memories for years.
n  Comprehension involves attention to syntactic, semantic, pragmatic factors.

4.      Immediate Processing of Sentences
4.1 Parsing
4.1.1 Def. – The first step in understanding a sentence is a procedure to assign elements of the sentence surface.

4.1.2  Immediacy Principle
Tust & Carpenter (1980): in Parsing we are making decisions though not necessarily
in a conscious manner, about which to place incoming words in the tree diagram we
are building.
4.1.3 Parsing Strategies Late closure strategies
e.g.  Tom said that Bill had taken the cleaning out yesterday.
--- Whenever possible, we prefer to attach new items to the current constituent, i.e., to reduce the burden on working memory during parsing. Minimal Attachment Strategy
--- We prefer attaching new items into the tree diagram being constructed using the fewest syntactic nodes.
5.      Memory for sentences
In natural discourse, it’s unlikely that we can retain all of sentences accurately since one sentence follows another in a successive flow.
In this part, we’ll examine what we remember and what we don’t remember for sentences.
5.1 Memory for meaning VS. surface form
5.1.1 Question: Whether we retain the exact form of a sentence or simply its meaning?
5.1.2 Retention interval in memory
5.1.3 Pragmatic factors
In some case, we seem to remember the exact form of what’s said, puzzling, confusing, insulting liger for years in our memory.
--- Holtgraves 1997

6. Discourse processing
6.0 strategies to establish coherence
The comprehension of discourse depends less on the meaning of individual sentences than on their arrangement.
6.0.1 Given/new strategy
--- this strategy status: a process of understanding a sentence in a discourse context involves 3 stages:
6.0.2 Direct Match
e.g. Zak hopped into a waiting car and sped around the corner. He swerved to avoid the parked car and smashed into a building.
e.g. Zak hopped into a waiting car. The old car lost a wheel and smashed into a building.
6.0.3 Bridging
--- In some cases, people must make an inference to bridge the gap between the target sentence and antecedents.
e.g. Last Christmas he went to a lot of parties.
   Comprehension:   Last Christmas he got absolutely smashed.
This Christmas he goes very drunk again.
6.0.4 Reinstating old info.
Example: S1:  I’m trying to find a black dog. He’s short and has a dog tag on his neck that says Fred. Yesterday he bit a little girl. She was scared but she wasn’t really hurt.
        S2:  yesterday, a black dog bit a little girl. It got away and we’re still trying to find it. He is short…. She was scared but…..

6.1 Schemata and Discourse Processing
6.1.1 Def.
Schema: a structure in semantic memory that specifies the general or expected arrangement of a body of info.     Context schema
                             Structure schema – genre
6.1.2 Activation of appropriate schemata (context schema)
--- Lack the appropriate schema: comprehension and memory are poor.
Experiment: Bartlett (1932) found it’s hard for British college student to understand Eskimo folk tales.
--- Even if one has the appropriate schema, but if one fails to activate them, comprehension and memory are poor. (course book P.207)

6.2 Narrative discourse Processing—story grammar
--- Some schemata concerns certain forms of discourse. A type of discourse which has a characteristic structure      genre. Genres provide general expectations regarding the way info in a discourse will be arranged.
6.2.1 Story grammar
--- ~ is a schema in semantic memory that identifies the typical or expected arrangement of events in a story.

7. Perception of Written Language
7.1 Levels of written language process
Processing written language exists at 3 levels—feature level, letter l, and word l
1)      At feature level, the stimulus is represented in terms of the physical features that comprise a letter of alphabet.
2)      At letter level, the stimulus is represented more abstractly as an identity separate from its physical manifestation:
3)      As the word is recognized, various properties of the words (spelling, pronunciation meaning) become available to us.
7.2 Eye moments during Reading
All these three above pieces of visual info are extracted through a series of eye movement.
1)      Saccades:
2)      Regression:
3)      Fixation:
4)      Span of fixation (perceptual span):
5)      Reading speed is determined by the duration of our fixations. The span of material fixated and the proportion of regressive eye movement.

8. Production of Speech and Writing
8.1 Slips of Tongue
--- Collect speech errors in spontaneous speech (live TV or radio)
--- Determine whether there are consistent patterns in when and how they occur.
--- Why study errors?
8 basic types of speech errors
1)      Shift
e.g. That’s so she’ll be ready in case she decide to hits it
2)      Exchange
e.g. Fancy getting your model renosed. (nose  remodeled)
3)      Anticipation
e.g.  B(T)ake my bike.
4)      Preservation
e.g.  He pulled a p(t)antrum.
5)      Addition
E.g.  I didn’t explain this c(l)arefully enough.
6)      Deletion
e.g.   I’ll just get up and mutter (un)intelligible.
7)      Substitution
e.g.  At low speed it’s too light (heavy).
8)      Blend
e.g.  That child is looking to be spaddled. (spanked + paddled)

8.2 Garrett (1984) 5 stages in speaking a sentence
e.g  to produce sentence: She’s already packed two trunks.
1.      Massage-level representation
2.      Functional-level R
3.      Positional-level R
4.      Phonetic-level R
9. Production of Written Language
9.1 Issue: writing product vs. writing process
--- writing-as-a process approach
9.2 F&H
9.3 B&S’s model of the writing-process
--- proposing that: the writing process cannot assume a single processing model, but should consider different processing models at different developed stages.
--- focus more an describing why and how skilled and less-skilled writer compose differently.
--- 2 models: Knowledge-telling model
           Knowledge-transforming model.